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Technology integration in education has been a topic of interest for many years. Among those technologies, chatbots have been used in many educational settings. However, the impact of chatbots on students' engagement and critical thinking in different learning contexts has not been fully explored. This study aimed to investigate the impact of chatbots in different learning contexts on student engagement and critical thinking. A literature review was conducted to examine the previous studies on using chatbots in different learning contexts and relevant theoretical frameworks on student engagement and critical thinking in online and blended learning contexts. This study's results revealed that chatbots could improve students' engagement in different learning contexts and support the development of critical thinking skills. However, the design and features of chatbots should be aligned with the learning context to achieve optimal results. This study fills a gap in the literature by providing insight into how chatbot-mediated instruction may vary in different learning contexts and its possible impact on student engagement and critical thinking. The findings of this study have implications for chatbot design and instruction in different learning contexts, and it could be considered a valuable reference for educators, instructional designers, and researchers.



chatbots learning contexts student engagement critical thinking

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